Following on from my earlier posts, more about what makes a story work. The discussion points in this post are more focused on the work of the artist, whereas the ones in the previous post were more around what the writer does.
- Art quality. Is the art convincing and solid, with movement and vigour where required? Can the artist actually follow-through on technical requirements such as drawing ballet steps, gymnastics, and horses? Or is it inaccurate, stiff, or lifeless?
- Of course this is primarily the artist’s responsibility, but there is some input from editorial departments. They may ensure, for instance, that art drawn by Spanish artists matches the British location that most stories are supposed to take place in by adding in pillar boxes and the like. Few artists in Jinty and other comics of this era are anything other than good to extremely good, so overall art quality is normally not a factor in the story not working. However, the artist may have specific gaps in what they can and can’t draw convincingly.
- Stronger: There are so many strong artists that it is difficult to pick out one over the other except on the basis of personal preference. Mario Capaldi can draw faces, action sequences, and solidly convincing backgrounds, and is almost universally loved, but you could also say the same of my personal favourites Trini Tinturé, Phil Gascoine, and Phil Townsend. I think perhaps my favourite art on all the stories might however be Terry Aspin’s work on “Alice In A Strange Land”, in which he brings a strange jungle-wrapped lost city to life, alongside the British schoolgirls who have strayed into it.
- Weaker: I find the Ken Houghton art on “Tansy of Jubilee Street” to be adequate but unexciting. It can be stiff at times when the artist has intended an action sequence, which is bad news. But even excellent artists can have off-days, too: Jim Baikie’s art is normally top-notch, but in parts of “Miss No-Name” some faces and sequences are very patchy, and possibly even filled-in by another hand. Finally, even if the artist is generally good, a specific failure to draw ballet well will condemn the story in the eyes of those who can spot that, as Mistyfan commented on a previous post.
- Art style. The style of the artist needs to be matched to the story requirements. A light-hearted comedy story typically uses a more exaggerated style, and a sentimental or sad story might need something more restrained.
- This might be an editorial decision in commissioning the right artist for the job, but it might also involve the artist deciding to use a variation on their usual style. Mario Capaldi and Jim Baikie are examples of artists who had humorous and serious styles that can be readily distinguished not because they look radically different but by the exaggeration of the character’s actions and expressions.
- Stronger: This was generally a close match in any case. In other titles you could cite the use of John Armstrong to illustrate gymnastics in the Bella stories; in Jinty a close parallel would be the usage of Mario Capaldi for any sports story – for instance his superb depiction of the dramatic moments and of the swimming action in “Cursed To Be A Coward!“
- Weaker: I think I would choose the selection of Trini Tinturé in “Prisoners of Paradise Island”. Trini is an excellent artist for showing scheming and plotting elegant ‘bad girls’ rather than hockey-playing schoolgirls. Similarly, José Casanovas in “The Darkening Journey” is always a slight mis-match for me as his animal characters are beautifully drawn but a tad too intrinsically cheeky-looking for such a sad and dramatic story. Finally, although I like Keith Robson’s art on “The Goose Girl” a lot, the Dutch publishers of Tina clearly felt that they wanted an art style that matched the continental expectations (such as a clear, clean line) as the same fundamental story was re-drawn in a Tina Topstrip.
- Consistency of art. If the artist or the quality of the art changes visibly during the run of the storyline then this will be noticed by readers and is likely to have a negative impact on how well the story works overall.
- If the artist is unwell or over-committed there might be a requirement for the editorial team to get another artist to fill in some or all of the remaining episodes of a story. Alternatively, another artist might perhaps collaborate to help finish the work in time (for instance by inking the original artist’s pencilled drawings). Presumably this might be an informal arrangement between artists if they were able to do this (for instance if they shared the same studio), but as there will have been people’s salaries at stake too I am assuming this was more likely to be an editorial decision to ensure that the story could be completed rather than abandoned.
- Stronger: I am not aware of any examples where an inconsistency in the artwork actually benefitted the story (for instance if a mediocre artist was replaced by a better one). Even if the art changed for the better, the change itself would be jarring and intrusive. Ongoing humorous strips such as “The Jinx from St Jonah’s” did tend to have a few different artists working on it over the years and this was workable as there tended not to be a single story that would be badly affected by this change.
- Weaker: This didn’t actually happen very often in Jinty‘s run. The obvious example is “Champion in Hiding” which started off with Mario Capaldi’s beautiful work and moved on to being drawn by Hugh Thornton-Jones, better known for his art on humour stories such as “Sue’s Fantastic Fun-Bag!”.
- Character design. Making the characters in a story look and behave distinctively on the page is partly visual and partly about their dialogue and actions. Is the result a solid, convincing character or can you hardly tell them apart from other characters in girls’ comics? Worse, can you hardly even tell who’s who in the same story?
- There is a lot of responsibility on the artist to bring a clear and distinctive visual identity to the character; at a minimum the inhabitants of the story should have different hairstyles, shapes, clothes that separate everyone out and make sure the reader is not confused. Ideally they should also have distinctive body shapes, body language and so forth too. The writer will have an impact too, in giving the protagonists an individual drive that will make them separate from others via distinctive dialogue and so forth.
- Stronger: Jim Baikie was a very long-running Jinty artist, illustrating many continued stories and one-off Gypsy Roses. He certainly reused hairstyles (Fran of “Fran’ll Fix It!” shared a hairstyle with the protagonist of this Gypsy Rose story) but nevertheless each of his characters is visually distinctive in multiple ways – body shape, body language, freckles, and so on. No danger of mistaking his characters even when they do have some features in common.
- Weaker: Comos’ schoolgirls across various stories illustrated by him have a bit too much similarity, I feel: I’d pick out the characters in “Destiny Brown” and the protagonists of “The Haunting of Form 2B” as being particularly visually similar.
- Layout. There is a lot of thought that goes into getting an effective layout at the level of the individual panel and at the level of the whole page. Wally Wood’s 22 Panels That Always Work gives an idea of the sort of panel layouts that a US mainstream comics artist might use to vary the visual interest on a page; the conventions and standards for British weekly comics may differ a bit but will share a lot of requirements for varying the focus in each panel. Page layouts likewise can be pedestrian or innovative, with varying sizes of panel within and artwork that breaks out of the constraints of the panel border.
- Again much of the responsibility of this lies with the artist, but the editorial team may also have input – for instance there may be a general instruction that pages should use a layout based on a nine-panel grid or on a six-panel grid to allow for larger panels. Pat Mills talks interestingly about working with the artist to create a dymanic page layout and strong panel layouts too. I don’t think that writers in this kind of comic usually would script down to this level (though in US mainstream comics they often will) but of course Pat was also an editor.
- Stronger: There are a lot of really good and interesting layouts in Jinty, Misty, and Tammy, perhaps more so than in other titles from the time. “Concrete Surfer” has some very dynamic and interesting layouts depicting the protagonist’s skateboarding tricks; “Land of No Tears” is slightly more conventional but often breaks the borders or uses irregular panels for a dramatic effect.
- Weaker: no immediate examples come to mind.
- Incidentals. I am using this to refer to little background details in the artwork or the story.
- This could be down to ideas from artist or from writer. Perhaps the artist will particularly need to fill the background somehow and may therefore put in extra detail either humorous or nostalgic.
- Stronger: For instance Jim Baikie includes little jokes in the background of “Fran’ll Fix It”: they may be joky signs or funny things happening behind the protagonist’s back. There may also be little touches of colour that the writer may also include; I have always remembered a bit of dialogue in “Merry at Misery House” where Merry says she’s “not as green as [she’s] cabbage-looking!’ This is not in fact anything invented by writer Terry Magee but it’s a nice touch of appropriate vernacular and always lived on in my memory.
- Weaker: It would be possible for the background detail to be over-egged and too intrusive. I can’t think of an immediate example that comes to mind however.
- Design / font / lettering. The lettering of the dialogue in Jinty and similar comics are all typed in a standardised font, without any big distinction between strong emotion and ordinary ones (there can be a slightly bolder effect used but with the low print quality on newsprint this is not very easy to distinguish). However, the logo for the story title itself is more distinctively rendered to match the story it heads up. There are also lettering elements in the artwork that can be done well or less well – shop-fronts, newspapers within the story, and so on. Unlike in other comics genres, sound effects (another possible element to be done well or less well) are not greatly used.
- I assume the story logo would have been done in-house editorially but this would need confirmation; I could also imagine it as supplied by the artist. The lettering would certainly be done by someone other than the artist as we can see by the consistency of the font used.
- Stronger: A number of the story logos have a fairly simple design just using a natty font, so anything more than this can be quite striking. I like the design of the “Fran of the Floods” logo, with plain lettering but the addition of rain and a pool of water.
- Weaker: Sometimes the logo font has no obvious sympathy with the title and just seems to have been chosen because it hadn’t been used particularly recently. “The Four-Footed Friends” is an example; nothing wrong with the story logo, but it doesn’t add anything extra.
- Format / edition / pagination. The Jinty stories were only reprinted by British publishers in annuals rather than in albums collecting the whole story together, but of course translated editions did exist that brought the whole of a story under the same covers. This could potentially mean that a story either feels stronger in reading it as a cohesive whole, or perhaps that weaknesses of pacing are more clearly felt and so the whole story works less well when read as a single edition. Alternatively, a story may even be entirely too long for some formats. Finally, the format also includes the page size and other publishing decisions – how many pages will be in that week’s issue? Which pages will be printed on the double-page spread at the centre, or on the front or back where you can only see a single page at a time? These decisions are all very specific to the individual printing of a story and don’t necessarily impact how a story reads over its lifetime over more than one printing.
- These format decisions are all editorial and would be unlikely to be down to anything decided by artist or writer (though a popular artist or writer could be ‘rewarded’ by being given a plum location in the weekly edition of a title, of course). I would assume that in these cases, the writer and artist will not typically have known in advance whether their story was to be printed on a double-page spread or on the right-hand page (meaning that the reader needed to turn over to reveal the next page) and would not have specifically tailored the story as a result. (In other kinds of comics publications this kind of fine-tuning is possible and even normal.)
- Stronger/ weaker: I have not got good examples of stories that could make a stronger or weaker impact depending on the editorial choices of edition and pagination, but perhaps a reader of one of the translated albums may have views based on that experience.
11 thoughts on “What makes a story work, pt 3?”
I know some people say they are just interested in the story, not the art (or vice versa) but I think the right combination will make the difference between an okay story and a great one. In “The Many Faces of Moppet” a girl’s behaviour is influenced by a doll, but instead of the often used curse of just making the girl act nasty, in this story what ever expression the doll has the girl changes to suit it. Andrew Wilson a versatile artist captures the variety of expression perfectly, including happy, smug, nasty and mischievousness.
People may say that or even think it but the whole point of comics is the interplay between words and pictures so yes, I totally agree! Of course someone may concentrate more on one thing than the other, but still.
One of the worst compilations of a serial reprinted in an annual was “Journey into Fear”. Originally appearing in Misty, it was reprinted in Girl annual 1984. But they had to chop stuff out as it was too long to reprint in the annual in its entirety, and this resulted in the heroine’s outfit changing twice on the same page without any logical explanation.
Another was the reprint of “Sue’s Daily Dozen” in one of the Girl Picture Library as “Spellbound”. The story was so long for the picture library that they couldn’t even reprint the end – it just stops with the pages of the Daily Dozen book turning. The booklet then moves on to a reprint of a Wee Sue story under the new title of Tiny Tina.
Blimey, why even bother reprinting a story if you clearly can’t fit it all in (as in the reprint of SDD). I think that shortening a story is a reasonable thing to try to do but you have to be careful about it, which they clearly weren’t in your example of “Journey into Fear”.
It turns out the story continued in a second volume. But there was nothing to explain that.
Almost half of ‘Journey into fear’ was cut. In Misty it had 52 pages, in the reprint only 30. Most of it was done unnoticable, if you didn’t know the original, but the change of outfit was a real goof. The story is not very interesting in the cut version. I first knew the short version, and didn’t like it very much. When earlier this year I read the complete version in Misty, I could appreciate it much more.
Some stories you have read so often, that you remember every panel when you re-read it, like ‘The sea witches’ from Tammy. The Dutch version was called ‘De donderganzen van het Oldemoer’, and I must have read it many, many times. The Dutch version had 48 pages, the original in Tammy 56. When I read the original version earlier this year, I was waiting for the moment I came to an episode that was (partly) missing from the shortened version. As it turned out, there were two consecutive episodes in the original that were missing from the Dutch version. These episodes didn’t do anything to keep the story going, and my guess is ‘The sea witches’ was a popular story, and these were added to make the story last longer,
So sometimes cutting part of a story works.
It would have been easier to reprint a shorter story from Tammy or Jinty in the Girl annual than an edited version of Journey into Fear. Or even one of the shorter Misty serials such as The Sentinels. I wonder why they didn’t go down that route?
‘The sentinels’ had 48 pages, so it wouldn’t have made a lot of difference.
‘Day of the dragon’ had 30 pages and ‘ A leap through time’ 31, so they could have chosen those, if they had to choose a story from Misty. Although I think ‘Day of the dragon’ is rather weak.
But yes, it would have been easier to reprint a story that already had the right number of pages. Perhaps they had an intern for whom they had to find something to do!
They reprinted “Tricia’s Tragedy” in one Girl annual with no cuts as far as I could see. In another they reprinted “What’s Wrong with Rhona?” from Tammy, but it had stuff cut out. Another annual reprinted “No Place for Children” from Tammy, and I think it was intact. By 1988 the Girl annuals were reprinting their own serials.
In the Golden Age Classics Bunty for Girls, it says comedy stories seldom made the very top of the story polls, but they were always in the top three or four. This was the case for Bunty, anyway. It may have been a similar case for other comics; I wouldn’t know.
So if a humour story seldom made the very top of the Bunty story polls, even if it was always popular enough to be in the polls, I wonder what did?
The Sentinels from Misty is a prime example of bad lettering; some people’s names keep changing. For example, Mr Richards’ first name is either Dave or John, and we even get both on the last page of the last episode. I think Sally (the co-heroine) had her surname changed, and in the first episode she was called Julie.
The first name of Miss Bigger from Wee Sue changed from Lillian to Amelia. The villain from Jinty’s Toni on Trial also had her first name changed if I remember right.
There must be other examples of people’s names changing in girls’ comics. Bad lettering or bad editing?